Detection – or inspection is a part-oriented strategy that
attempts to identify unacceptable output after it has been
produced and separate it from the good output.
Distribution – the population from which observations are
drawn, categorized into cells, and form identifiable patterns. It
is based on the concept of variation that states that anything
measured repeatedly will arrive at different results. These
results will fall into statistically predictable patterns. A bell-
shaped curve (or normal distribution) is an example in which
the greatest number of observations fall in the center with
fewer and fewer observations falling evenly on either side of the
average.
Force Field Analysis – a technique developed by Kurt Lewin that
displays the driving (positive) and restraining (negative) forces
surrounding any change. This is displayed in a “balanced sheet”
format.
Frequency Distribution – a statistical table that presents a large
volume of data in such a way that the central tendency
(average/mean/median) and distribution are clearly displayed.
Population – the universe of data under investigation from
which a sample will be taken.
Prevention – a future-oriented strategy that improves quality by
directing analysis and action toward correcting the production
process. Prevention is consistent with a philosophy of
continuous or never-ending improvement.
Process – the combination of people, machine and equipment,
raw materials, methods and environment that produces a given
product or service.
Process Capability – the measured, built-in reproducibility or
consistency of the product turned out by the process. Such a
determination is made using statistical methods. The
statistically determined pattern or distribution can only then be
compared to specification limits to decide if a process can
consistently deliver product within those parameters.
Sample – one or more individual events or measurements
selected from the output of a process for the purpose of
identifying characteristics and performance of the whole.
Sigma – the greek letter used to designate the estimated
standard deviation.
Special cause – a source of variation that is intermittent,
unpredictable, unstable, sometimes called an assignable cause.
Usually evident by a point beyond the control limits.
Standard deviation – a measure of the spread of the process
output or the spread of a sampling statistic from the process,
denoted by the greek letter sigma.
Statistical control – the condition describing a process from
which all special causes have been removed, evidenced on a
control chart by the absence of points beyond the control limits
and by the absence of non-random patterns or trends within
the control limits.
Statistical process control – the use of statistical techniques
such as control charts to analyze a process or its output so as to
take appropriate action to achieve and maintain a state of
statistical control and to improve the capability of the process.
Stratification – the process of classifying data into subgroups
based on characteristics or categories.

Glossary of Terms
## Below is a list of common quality terms that you will find within this web

## site, and in the Quality world.

© The Quality Web, authored by Frank E. Armstrong, Making Sense Chronicles - 2003 - 2016

Glossary of Terms
## Below is a list of common quality terms that

## you will find within this web site, and in the

## Quality world.

© The Quality Web, authored by Frank E. Armstrong, Making Sense
Chronicles - 2003 - 2016

Detection – or inspection is a part-oriented strategy that
attempts to identify unacceptable output after it has been
produced and separate it from the good output.
Distribution – the population from which observations are
drawn, categorized into cells, and form identifiable patterns. It
is based on the concept of variation that states that anything
measured repeatedly will arrive at different results. These
results will fall into statistically predictable patterns. A bell-
shaped curve (or normal distribution) is an example in which
the greatest number of observations fall in the center with
fewer and fewer observations falling evenly on either side of the
average.
Force Field Analysis – a technique developed by Kurt Lewin that
displays the driving (positive) and restraining (negative) forces
surrounding any change. This is displayed in a “balanced sheet”
format.
Frequency Distribution – a statistical table that presents a large
volume of data in such a way that the central tendency
(average/mean/median) and distribution are clearly displayed.
Population – the universe of data under investigation from
which a sample will be taken.
Prevention – a future-oriented strategy that improves quality by
directing analysis and action toward correcting the production
process. Prevention is consistent with a philosophy of
continuous or never-ending improvement.
Process – the combination of people, machine and equipment,
raw materials, methods and environment that produces a given
product or service.
Process Capability – the measured, built-in reproducibility or
consistency of the product turned out by the process. Such a
determination is made using statistical methods. The
statistically determined pattern or distribution can only then be
compared to specification limits to decide if a process can
consistently deliver product within those parameters.
Sample – one or more individual events or measurements
selected from the output of a process for the purpose of
identifying characteristics and performance of the whole.
Sigma – the greek letter used to designate the estimated
standard deviation.
Special cause – a source of variation that is intermittent,
unpredictable, unstable, sometimes called an assignable cause.
Usually evident by a point beyond the control limits.
Standard deviation – a measure of the spread of the process
output or the spread of a sampling statistic from the process,
denoted by the greek letter sigma.
Statistical control – the condition describing a process from
which all special causes have been removed, evidenced on a
control chart by the absence of points beyond the control limits
and by the absence of non-random patterns or trends within
the control limits.
Statistical process control – the use of statistical techniques
such as control charts to analyze a process or its output so as to
take appropriate action to achieve and maintain a state of
statistical control and to improve the capability of the process.
Stratification – the process of classifying data into subgroups
based on characteristics or categories.